Recovering from a near-fatal road crash

Text By: Buena Bernal || Photos By: Dante V. Diosina, Jr.

MANILA, Philippines – Photojournalist Dante V. Diosina Jr was on his way with his brother, cousin and a group of friends to a small coastal town east of Manila to celebrate his 25th birthday.

The group was in a convoy he led riding his Yamaha NMAX scooter, recently purchased using money from a freelance photography assignment he did documenting agricultural and fisheries production in Southern Philippines for an international newswire.

Approaching an uphill curve in one of the roads notorious for vehicular collisions, he suffered a near-fatal crash.

He was overtaking some vehicles due to traffic when a jeepney and his scooter barreled head-to-head into each other.

Both his scooter and the private jeepney’s bumper were wrecked by the collision.

He had already pulled on the brake lever, but the jeepney was way too close and occupying most of the lane. He attempted to swerve to the other side, but knew it was a futile attempt.

Around a meter and a half in distance away from the incoming vehicle and amid the screeching sound of his two wheels decelerating, Diosina already closed his eyes knowing full well it would end in a crash.

DJ2.jpgDiosina ended up with a splintered hip, femur (thigh bone) and wrist, which all but looked like jigsaw puzzles in his X-ray slides. He did not suffer any head injury, with his US$100 helmet still intact on his head when his friends and some onlookers found him all broken on the road. 

The 2004 World Report in Road Traffic Injury Prevention revealed that head trauma is said to be the main cause of road crash deaths, accounting to around 75% of the deaths.

Diosina regained consciousness as a crowd gathered around him.

Nakita ko ‘yung kaliwa kong kamay. Bali ‘yung wrist. Nabali siya. Naka-letter S. Nag-curve… Pag tingin ko sa hita ko, ‘yung paa ko nasa bewang,” Diosina says in an interview with Workers of PH, explaining his recollection of the moment right after the crash.

[TRANSLATION: I saw my left hand. My wrist was broken. It was fractured. It was in the shape of the letter ‘S’. It was curved… When I looked at my thigh, my foot was already on my hip.]

3-683x1024His family would later on learn from the cops that, just a few weeks ago, a couple had died from another crash on that same spot.

In the days and months following the collision, Diosina was totally dependent on others for his basic movements.

He would be unable to move his body from the neck down, which meant he required assistance even just to eat and drink through a straw. He can only relieve himself from his hospital bed, with the help of adult diapers.

It took a year from the date of his crash before his movements went back to normal. Each day in the recovery process was a necessary step for him to return to doing what he loved. He is now back on the field as a photojournalist, just like he was before physically but much more stronger emotionally.

Following a successful six-hour-long operation that inserted titanium plates into the fractured areas of his body, Diosina had to undergo months-long physical therapy. Diosina’s doctor had recommended to his family the in-house physical therapist of a hospital near their home.

Mr. Lyle Patrick Tangcuangco, who runs a private physical therapy practice, explains that a motor vehicular crash patient and his or her family should seek a physical therapist or physiotherapist as soon as possible.

“This is to have the best recovery or to have the optimal recovery for the patient and also to prevent what we call secondary complications from the injury,” Tangcuangco told Workers of PH in an interview.

Tangcuangco received his Master’s Degree in Physical Therapy major in Orthopedics from the University of Santo Tomas, where he is currently a faculty member.

He explains that the process of physical recovery will be unique for every road crash patient.

“Recovery will never be the same for everybody even if two patients had the same demographics and type of injury. This is why we physical therapists or physiotherapists assess and create a personalized rehabilitation program for each patient,” he explained.


Tangcuangco added that recovery speed will “heavily depend on several factors” including the severity of the injury of the patient, his or her age and prior health conditions before the crash, the time or stage of injury during which the patient and his or her family sought a consultation, as well as the strict adherence of the patient and the support of his or her family to the rehabilitation program.

He says a patient’s injury could be as simple as a muscle strain or as complex as a traumatic brain injury.

Diosina admits there were several times especially in the beginning of his recovery period when he would compare himself to his peers, who were hard at work while he lay in bed all day.  

Noong una kasi maiingit ka, makakakita ka ng mga tumatakbo, naglalakad. Tapos makikita mo sa social media mga katrabaho mo dati, nagagawa pa rin ‘yung trabaho nila, ikaw hindi,” he said.

[TRANSLATION: At first, you’ll feel envy as you see others who are able to run, able to walk. Then you’ll see via social media your colleagues in the past who are still able to do their work while you can’t.]

He says it doesn’t always get to you. But on days when there is nothing else to think about, nothing else to talk about, and time seems slow, it does get to you.


You think of what life could be instead if things did not go wayward, if the lane was not too narrow, if the road was not curved, if the driver of the incoming jeepney only drove a little slower.

There are the days and the moments when the what if‘s are all that matters.

Ms. Kay Vardeleon, counseling psychologist at the Childfam-Possibilities Psychosocial Services, explains that “symptoms like mood changes, flashbacks of events, stress reactions when faced with any reminder of the event, sleep or eating pattern changes as well as fears to expose one’s self to related situations such as riding a vehicle are normal within the first couple of weeks after the critical incident.”

“It would be helpful to remember that traumatic events are abnormal situations in a person’s life — that is, they are events that don’t usually happen everyday. Thus, if you are experiencing these symptoms, it doesn’t mean that you’re weak or mentally ill. Give yourself time,” she explained in an interview with Workers Of PH.

Vardeleon says that finding a way to express your feelings, surrounding yourself with supportive loved ones, and engaging in relaxing activities such as breathing exercises or mindful meditation can be done while at this stage.

“Family members should normalize these responses and offer support or understanding, instead of judgment or impatience,” she added.

Emotional support along with opportunities to process the event is very much needed in most cases, according to Vardeleon.

“When memories of the event become recurrent and excessively intrusive, you can employ what is called grounding techniques which means using your five senses—sound, touch, smell, taste, and sight—to immediately connect you with the here and now,” Vardeleon explained.

“Examples of grounding can be stopping to notice colors and patterns in the objects around you, singing a song, biting a lemon, or smelling pleasant aromas like lavender or peppermint,” she added.


When you notice that symptoms may be prolonged, intense or difficult to manage, Vardeleon says professional mental health support can also be considered.

“Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is the diagnosis given to a person who has been exposed to a traumatic event and presents with stress symptoms for more than one month,” she explains.

Vardeleon says PTSD symptoms include re-experiencing flashbacks, nightmares or involuntary intrusive thoughts related to the event, persistent avoidance of trauma-related thoughts or feelings or trauma-related external reminders such as people, places or activities, avoidance of anything that will remind one’s self of the traumatic incident, feeling keyed up — what is called hyperarousal — or being excessively alert in case a new traumatic event happens, having difficulty sleeping, and having alternations in mood such as being sad or depressed or being angry or irritable.

“PTSD symptoms can happen immediately after the traumatic incident, or even after some time has passed,” she explained.

Vardeleon adds it is best to contact a mental health professional such as a clinical psychologist or a psychiatrist for proper assessment and therapy if you suspect that you may have PTSD.

“With the right diagnosis and treatment, a person suffering PTSD can make a full recovery,” she says.


Diosina said even the physical recovery process entailed emotional resilience, as one could sometimes be impatient with the results.

Noong mga first month noong kalalagay pa lang ’yung bakal kasi, as in hindi ko magalaw ‘yung paa ko. Wala siyang pakiramdam. So parang although sinasabi naman ng doktor na makakalakad, pero kasi hangang hindi ko nakikita na gumagalaw ‘yung paa ko hindi ako naniniwala,” he said.

[TRANSLATION: During the first month of my recovery, when the titanium plates were just placed in the fractured areas, I couldn’t move my leg yet. I couldn’t feel it. Although the doctor was saying I can walk again, it was difficult for me to take the doctor at his word until I could see my leg move.]

Pero ang ginawa ko noon, lahat ng therapy noon ginawa ko, sunod sunod, hangang sa naramdaman ko na lahat ‘yung buong paa ko gumagalaw,” he said of the year-long process.

[TRANSLATION: But what I did then, I did all the therapy exercises, one after another, until I could feel my whole leg moving again.]

Physical therapist Tangcuangco explains that a physical therapist or physiotherapist also provides patients with home programs that they can easily apply on their own, on top of the patient’s treatment with the professional.

“We usually see and treat the patients two to three times a week. In between those days, the patient with his or her family should adhere to the home therapy or program that the physical therapist or physiotherapist instructed. This will significantly help and hasten the recovery of the patient,” he said.

Diosina also advises those still undergoing recovery to trust the process.

Huwag na huwag kang titigil sa therapy, sa exercise kasi iyon talaga ‘yung makakapagpabalik ng lakas ng katawan mo,” he encouraged, despite being in pain during some of these exercises. 

[TRANSLATION: Don’t stop with your therapy and exercise because that is really what will bring back your body’s strength.]

28428183_347159765779090_6415633636355211264_n-1024x1024Mr. Tangcuangco said that aside from adherence to the physical therapy or physiotherapy program, family support is also an important factor in the “fast and optimum recovery of the patient.”

Counseling psychologist Vardeleon also explains that events that are potentially traumatic can significantly impact a person’s psychological well-being, not just his or her physical well-being.

“Remember that you’re resilient; tapping into your reservoir of coping skills will greatly help,” she advised.

Diosina encourages those undergoing recovery from a road crash injury to not be weighed down by negative thoughts for too long.

Makinig ka sa doktor at saka tatatagan mo sarili mo,” he said. [TRANSLATION: Listen to the doctor, and be strong.]

Higit sa lahat, doon sa mga pamilya, sa mga ka-partner… huwag na huwag sila papabayaan kasi iyon ‘yung time na kailangan talaga nila kayo,” he said.

[TRANSLATION: Most of all, to the family members, to the partners of road crash survivors, don’t ever neglect them during their recovery because that is the time when they need you the most.] (END) –

This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, the Department of Transportation in the Philippines and Vera FilesThe author is closely related to the article’s primary subject and served as his caregiver in the recovery process.


#WorkersWhoBike: Ditching cars for good

Text By: Buena Bernal || Photos By: Vera Files

MANILA, Philippines – Government data shows majority of road fatalities in the Philippines are riders of two-wheelers such as bicycles and motorcycles at 66%, with pedestrians coming second at 22%.

At least one Philippines City, Pasig City, is seeking to prioritize pedestrians over cars in its road policies.

The city is looking into partnering with the private sector in subsidizing bike-sharing not just for Pasig City residents but also for residents of other cities who go to work in Pasig. The city hosts a vibrant business district that relies on professionals who come even from the outskirts of the Philippines’ urban center Metro Manila.


Already, the city is providing greater incentive for the designation of bike parking spaces in commercial buildings. It has also constructed elevated crossways in crucial road intersections to ensure efficient passage and mobility of pedestrians.

At the cornerstone of these efforts is Mr. Robert Anthony Siy, Pasig City Transport Development Management Officer.

Anyone who has heard Mr. Siy speak in public about his advocacy of keeping the city’s roads safe knows he speaks about it with a sparkle in his eye, as if it is his life’s mission. 

Those who have sat through one of his road safety talks relegate his bright-eyed idealism to his youth. But as we continue our series called #WorkersWhoBike, we learn more about the man getting the ball rolling in Pasig City.


In this short Q&A with Workers of PH, Mr. Siy shares how his journey to ditching car use for good started all while maintaining his resolute belief that making our roads safe and accessible to road users of all kinds should be a priority for Metro Manila.

Q: Why do you/did you used to bike to work?

A: “My biking started because my fiance (at the time girlfriend) moved to a place where parking was scarce and difficult. So I started riding a folding bike to go see her. After I started riding a bike to see her, I thought of using the bike to go to work. I started in November 2017 and haven’t looked back to using a car! But since that time, I’ve bought and started using an electric kick scooter so I don’t bike to work as much. Still no plans of going back to driving a car.”

Q: From your experience, how dangerous are Manila’s roads for a biker?

A: “Manila’s roads are dangerous for bikers. One thing you notice about Manila is that only strong, fit bikers can commute on a regular basis because you need the fitness and skills to keep up with traffic and avoid being hit by motor vehicles. Road surface conditions are also poor and there is a good chance of injury from potholes and other deformations in the pavement. At night, poor lighting conditions increase the danger from all causes. However, successful cycling cities are those which promote biking for all ages and abilities and this is where Manila should be headed.”


Q: What policies do you wish the government or businesses enforced for the safety of bikers?

A: “The government has a responsibility to provide safe streets for all users, especially vulnerable users such as bikers. Besides constructing bike lanes that provide physical protection from motor vehicle traffic, the government can improve safety of bikers by enforcing reasonable speed limits, providing adequate street lighting and sidewalks, and improving public transport stops and service. I mention the last part because erratic PUV driving poses a danger to bikers who often ride close to the curb. What is good for public transport and walking tends to also be good for biking, so the government should prioritize these forms of sustainable transport.”

Compared to motorists and pedestrians, there aren’t many #WorkersWhoBike yet. But by sharing their stories, perhaps another person would be encouraged to follow suit or would at least be a little kinder to those who do in order to help make our roads safer. (END) –

This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, the Department of Transportation in the Philippines and Vera Files.

#WorkersWhoBike: Biking not just for recreation

By: Buena Bernal

A quick search of #BikersLog on social networking site Twitter provides you snippets of journalist Robert JA Basilio Jr’s journey as a cyclist.

Mr. Basilio has been biking to work for half a decade now.

In one log, he shares how he chose the two-wheeled ride that day even when the weather was uncooperative. In another, he narrates how a driver of a public utility vehicle tried to sideswipe him, a water delivery truck driver refused to respect his right of way and rabid dogs ran after him.

As part of a series called #WorkersWhoBike, Workers of PH caught up with Mr. Basilio about his thoughts on biking as a mode of transportation. In this short Q&A, Mr. Basilio talks about motor vehicles being used as weapons on the road and the ways authorities can help bikers like him.

Q: Why do you bike to work?

A: “I used to go to the gym irregularly. I then decided to ride a road bike to get to the gym. A few days later, it dawned on me: If I can get to the gym on my bike, I pretty much could go anywhere on my bike. And when I was able to regularly ride my bike to work — at that time I was working in Pasig — I realized that I had no need to take public transportation at all.

On top of all that, riding a bike to work not only allows you to exercise, it also gives a point to riding a bike — because you have somewhere to go to. I’m more of that kind of cyclist than, say, those who ride for recreation, not that there’s anything wrong with that.”


Q: From your experience, how dangerous are Manila’s roads for a biker?

A: “It takes courage to ride a bike regularly on Metro Manila’s roads. But having said that, it’s not as dangerous as it looks. To get to their destinations, cyclists can always take side roads or take the highways, which when congested are pretty safe since vehicles are forced to slow down. Otherwise, highways are generally wide, allowing cyclists to just take the rightmost side of the right lane. Again, having said that, cyclists should wear helmets and install lights on their bikes to ensure that they are seen when riding at night.

It takes practice on the part of the cyclist to commute by bike and respect on the part of the vehicle driver. Unfortunately, car owners and drivers — of which I was once — use their vehicles most of the time as weapons against other road users. That kind of attitude — and the dangerous consequences of failing to address its root causes — poses as the larger threat to the safety of road users. Weaponizing vehicles is premised on road entitlement — that drivers are just the only class of people entitled to use the road. And that’s absolutely unjust. As the bike to work slogan says: We all should share the road.”

Q: What policies do you wish the government or businesses enforced for the safety of bikers?

A: “Government should install bike lanes. That may not work out for all roads — and I personally feel it won’t work at all and I bike to work — but signs and other road indicators that bike lanes are available will at least make other road users aware that cyclists are road users too.

Government should make it easier for other road users to report incidents of abuse committed by drivers.

Government should de-emphasize the importance of private motor vehicles as a form of transport. After all, the era of the motor car is very, very slowly coming to an end. Besides investing in public transport infrastructure, the government should also stop putting much importance on cars when planning and/or designing cities.

Government should prompt buses and trains to allow bikes onboard. That’s a long shot — as with other biking policies — but it has got to start somewhere.

Government should allow bike parking in all public buildings. It should also install showers to encourage more people to bike to work.

The same goes for the private sector. Besides allowing bike parking on their properties, they should make it easier for cyclists to park their bikes. Some malls already have bike parking but they are either located on the basement or on higher floors, locations which make it difficult for cyclists to access them. The private sector should also make showers available for cyclists.

Compared to motorists and pedestrians, there aren’t many #WorkersWhoBike yet. But by sharing their stories, perhaps another person would be encouraged to follow suit or would at least be a little kinder to those who do in order to help make our roads safer. (END) –

This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, the Department of Transportation in the Philippines and Vera Files.

A motorcycle crash left this man unconscious for 3 days

By: Buena Bernal

Fred Estonilla, then 28, was tired from a night of work driving a container van carrying some 6 tonnes of ready-to-wear clothing from his boss’ warehouse to the what is called Pier 15 at the port in the Philippines’ capital Manila.

But he couldn’t just rest or sleep right away after hours of work on the road. The workers’ quarters he stayed at provided by his long-time employer was in Cavite, south of the capital, still an hour or so drive away.

Trucks are usually only permitted to pass through Manila’s roads late in the evening, so Fred starts his work in the supply chain industry at 10:00 pm. He finishes his trip in the wee hours while everyone else is at home sleeping.

From Manila, he drives home to his quarters in Cavite in a motorcycle, one he’s proud of for having bought using money from his backbreaking labor.

Estonilla has been driving for a living since his teenage days. At 19, he started earning by driving passengers using his boss’ jeepney, a type of public transport vehicle in the Philippines.

Estonilla is now 43, still driving for a living, only this time for a media company.

As a driver, Estonilla is always alert and remembers roads even in the dark, even when it’s his first time in the area. The moment he returns to the same once-unfamiliar set of roads, he’s known it like the back of his hand. One visit is all it takes. It is part of his hard-earned wisdom as a driver.

He has spent most of his adult life on the road. There was a time he felt like its king, like everything was within his control.

But the year 2002 changed his life.

On his way home from a night of work as a truck driver in Manila, while on his beloved motorcycle at full speed in Cavite’s roads, Estonilla hit one of two cows running after each other in the middle of the street seemingly out of nowhere. The impact of the crash was aggravated by the speed at which Estonilla was driving.

“The road there is like many in the provinces. You can see the road is clear as far as your eyes can see,” he explained in the vernacular in an interview with Workers Of PH.

The next few scenes went by too fast for him to even recall now. Just a second after realizing the four-legged animal ahead of him was too close as he attempted to pull the brake lever, Estonilla’s vision went pitch black. Everything was a blur from there.

He spent 3 days at the intensive care unit of the De La Salle University Medical Center in Cavite, unconscious. His loved ones were about to pull the plug on him. On the third day, he regained consciousness. He had vowed on that day to never drive a motorcycle again.

In the Philippines, road crashes claim some 27 lives a day. Globally, it is the 9th top cause of human deaths, accounting to an estimated 1.24 million lives yearly.

The 2004 World Report in Road Traffic Injury Prevention revealed that head trauma is said to be the main cause of road crash deaths and morbidity, accounting to around 75% of the deaths. Estonilla said he was wearing the helmet that came free with the purchase of his motorcycle. Imagine where he’d be if he didn’t wear one.

These tragedies on our highways and streets are rarely caused by a single factor.

Road safety advocates explain that ensuring crashes in our roads don’t end up as fatal incidents is always a multidimensional challenge.

“There are a lot of factors. There is no single roadblock,” explained Dr. Ronaldo Quintana of the World Health Organization.

“There’s no road safety silver bullet that will solve this problem,” explained lawyer Sophia San Luis, executive director of the non-profit Imagine Law.

Imagine Law is a law organization specializing in public policy development and research on topics including road safety and public health.

San Luis says the challenge starts in changing perceptions.

“When you call it an accident, that is what you are perpetuating. That it is unexpected and unexplainable… It is very rarely unexpected,” she says.

A tire failure, for example, is linked to vehicle overloading and tire underinflation.

43107608_1108083962687162_800988856420663296_nIn the case of Estonilla, he admits he had thought the road was all his as no other vehicles were in sight.

He also admits letting his guard down and being a little too confident, as it’s the same highway he’s been traversing in the dark every night after his work shift ends.

But San Luis says there are also common myths about road crashes that need to be debunked.

“It’s very rarely just the driver who is at fault,” she says.

“The owners didn’t secure the leash of the cows,” Estonilla also explained.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are more deaths and economic costs caused by road crashes in low- to mid-income countries than in developed ones.

WHO’s Quintana says low- to mid-income countries usually do not have enough road safety legislation, have less strict implementation of existing road safety laws, have poorer road conditions, and may have more vehicles with questionable road worthiness.

San Luis explains that motorists in low- to middle-income countries like the Philippines are still in the process of acquiring vehicles.

“These countries are still developing, which means they’re still going through rapid motorization,” she says.

She also explained that holistic interventions that need to be strictly enforced are the key to preventing fatal crashes.

Among these laws is one pending in Congress, a measure mandating child restraints in all vehicles with children on board.

“While there are robust road safety laws, it doesn’t show in the data…. Because enforcement hasn’t kept up,” she added.

But the Philippine government says it is working to beat these problems.

The Philippines is taking a leaf from the playbook of Singapore, ranked by a 2017 World Economic Forum report as second out of 137 countries in terms of road quality, next only to the United Arab Emirates.

The Philippines’ transportation department says the country signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Singapore Cooperation Enterprise for the inception, design and realization of an Intelligent Transport System (ITS) in the regional capital Metro Manila.

This will include intelligent traffic lights and signs as well as a traffic control center for integrated traffic management, among others.

Greater use of technology in managing Manila’s roads is expected to avoid human errors in flagging road policy violators. It is also seen to combat widespread corruption in the form of bribes to enforcers during apprehensions.

Currently, there is a technical working group coordinating with Singapore for the finalization of the feasibility study on the planned ITS.

A pending law also seeks to ban bus terminals along the region’s intercity thoroughfare, EDSA Avenue, as well as create so-called friendship routes that private vehicles can pass through in gated villages and subdivisions.

Beyond the use of technology, one Philippines City, Pasig City, is seeking to prioritize pedestrians over cars in its road policies — subsidizing bike-sharing, providing greater incentive for the designation of bike parking spaces in commercial buildings, and constructing elevated crossways in crucial road intersections to ensure efficient passage and mobility of pedestrians.

State figures show 22% of road fatalities in the Philippines are pedestrians, second only to riders of two-wheelers such as motorcycles at 66%.

As for Fred Estonilla, he did return to driving a motorcycle five years after the collision but this time with much more caution and wisdom on the road.

“To be more alert and know that anything can happen,” he says of his greatest lesson from his life-altering crash.

Estonilla says he now steers the wheel with more mindfulness, patience and humility compared to his younger years.

He has since fathered two children, with another one on the way. (END) –

This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, the Department of Transportation in the Philippines and Vera Files.

Philippines marriage equality fight draws first-timers to pride parade

Text By: Buena Bernal || Photos By: Dante Diosina, Jr.

MARIKINA CITY, PHILIPPINES — D* and M* have been in same-sex relationships for almost a decade now, but this is both their first time participating in a gay pride parade here in the Philippines.


They say they flocked to the 2018 Metro Manila Pride March on June 30 with friends in part due to the visibility of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) issues in Philippine media in recent days. There’s been more attention after the Philippines High Court heard arguments on a historic petition seeking marriage equality.

“Because of what happened recently, my resolve became stronger — that the community needs to be united,” M* explained in a mix of English and Filipino.

Over two decades have passed since the first organized gay pride march in the Philippines, said to be the first in the region.


But levels of tolerance are not necessarily translating to equality; that is, to LGBTQ people having the same set of demandable rights as heterosexuals.

A local survey released June 30 by nonprofit Social Weather Stations showed only 22% of Filipinos support same-sex marriage in the Philippines.

Same-sex marriage petitioner Jesus Falcis admits he has at times doubted himself, given the barrage of criticisms about how he supposedly failed to consolidate the views of the LGBT community in the Philippines before he filed his historic petition that is expected to set legal precedent on the definition of marriage in the country.

“Sometimes it makes me question if I’m doing the right thing, if I’m going to be the cause for the LGBT movement to suffer setbacks,” petitioner Falcis shared in an interview.

But to partners and pride parade first-timers D* and M*, the rallying call for marriage equality in the Philippines made them feel that they now have a larger stake in the movement.

Concerns on society’s readiness were also raised by critics of Falcis’ court plea challenging the constitutionality of select provisions of the Family Code, which limited marriage to opposite-sex partners.


Philippines Supreme Court Justice Marvic Leonen even went as far as to imply in his interpellation of same-sex petitioner Jesus Falcis that society or at least the court justices first needed to learn queer theory concepts of gender identity, gender expression and the likes before a reasoned debate about same-sex marriage can commence. This unusually high bar of understanding such theoretical abstractions as a prerequisite to granting a right enjoyed by all shows how disadvantaged the sector is.

Falcis has maintained that society’s readiness is out of the debate. The question, he said in a separate television interview, is not whether heterosexuals are ready for same-sex marriage but whether the LGBTQ community is ready. They are the ones to benefit from the right after all.

M* said marriage would be part of their plan if only it was accessible to people like them. D* and M*, now both mid-career young professionals, have been together for the past 6 months.

For 3 years, M* had always noticed D* at work but never made the first move to avoid workplace complications. In December last year, having thought M* had no interest, D* reached out by messaging M* via social media. The interest, it turned out, was mutual.

Self-proclaimed foreign missionary John Hannula believes people like D* and M* hate God.


Hannula wielded a Bible at the Metro Manila Pride March, as he stood at the venue entrance shouting that “gays, homosexuals, transgenders would all go to hell.”

“I’m here because I’m a missionary,” Hannula, who came from the United States but has been in the Philippines for over two years now, said in an interview. “I’m here not to judge the people,” he said.

“You hate God!” bewailed Hannula each time he pointed his finger at an LGBT supporter who passed by.

Hannula said people have been listening to him here at the pride parade — a claim belied by the loud music blaring through the speakers, the absence of an audience focused on him, and the murmurs of those entering the venue questioning why his small group of “haters” couldn’t just let them celebrate with friends without reproach in the space allotted to them for the duration of the pride march.

“Most of them have said: What’s the point? There’s no God,” Hannula said, insisting he has engaged in productive dialogue with people at the march.

“IT’S NOT OK to be GAY!” read the signage held by one of his companions.


Critics of marriage equality, however, are not confined to those who think of homosexuality as inherently evil. There is division within the movement itself.

Falcis said critics surfaced the same year he filed the same-sex marriage petition before the country’s top court.

The Philippines government through Solicitor-General Jose Calida argued before the Supreme Court that the Constitution defines marriage as strictly between a man and a woman. While the actual text of the Philippines Charter does not explicitly say this, Mr. Calida said that was the intent of the framers of the Philippines Constitution as shown in a transcript of them voting on the matter.

Justice Marvic Leonen aptly pointed out that the Constitution’s power is derived from the Filipino people, who had ratified by plebiscite the 1987 Constitution. He explained that Filipinos involved in the plebiscite ratified the Charter based on its actual text and not the debates behind its framing. He also pointed out that the outcome of these debates in the framing of the Charter is not necessarily a strict legal prescription but can have persuasive effect on the Constitution’s present interpretation.

But Leonen also tagged Falcis’ petition as “dangerous” for even bringing up the issue. Now, he said, the Court will be forced to rule on what the Constitutional definition of marriage is.

The hope of the movement, of course, is for the Court to rule in favor of marriage equality.


Falcis, who was also present at the pride march, said the initial debate within the Philippine LGBT movement was between prioritizing fighting for an anti-discrimination bill in Congress and fighting for marriage equality. This debate opened up as early as 2015 when he filed his petition.

“Initially, since 2015, I was getting disheartened because of flak from the movement due to disagreement as to strategy and priorities” he explained.

“But now in 2018, more people as in more people have told me they support the cause and are happy that someone is pushing for it,” he added.

John Baluyot, a global product manager at a business firm who is currently in a long-term same-sex relationship with his partner Mark, says he feels bad over lost opportunity more than anything else.

“I live a great life with Mark now, without the [marriage] certificate. But we can live it a lot better especially if that marriage will make it easier for us to adopt kids that we can both parent,” he said in an interview.

“I know we will make great parents and there is so much love in both our families. The kids that we will have, I have a good feeling, will be outstanding citizens, if not more,” he added.


Supreme Court Justice Samuel Martires raised a flurry of questions that drove the point of equality during his interpellation of the government’s main defender, Philippines Solicitor-General Jose Calida: “Why do we have to discriminate against same-sex marriage?” “Are not gay people, the lesbians capable of loving like heterosexuals?” “Why are we allowing marriages between criminals and yet will not recognize marriage between a man and a man and a woman and a woman?” “Why is the state so indifferent to the happiness of these people?” “Are we not just affected by our religious beliefs?”

Eighty percent of the Philippines’ population of 100 million are followers of Roman Catholicism, which frowns upon homosexuality.

This drives many to hide their gender identities and suppress expressing these identities when at the company of people they fear would not accept them.


Despite the tight-knit culture their industry is known for, D* and M* started out not being open about their relationship at work.

Workmates eventually learned about their same-sex relationship through social media, and M* has since been relieved he no longer needed to repress his gender identity at least at work.

“The relief was overwhelming. It was as if the entire time I was walking with only one foot, and when I came out, I could finally walk on both feet,” M* explained in Filipino.

He hopes that one day he can do the same before his parents.

But while he’s not there yet and Philippines society has yet to view marriage equality in a positive light, he’s here out and proud in what he feels is a safe space with a community he finally got to publicly celebrate his identity with.

“I feel proud. Finally, I got to experience that feeling that I’m not alone,” M* said about his first gay pride march. (END) –


*Interview subjects preferred not to reveal their identities

Guimaras’ miniature galleon-makers

Text By: Buena Bernal || Photos By: Dante Diosina, Jr.

BUENAVISTA, GUIMARAS, Philippines – In this village of intergenerational artisans, men of the household do the carving of “Duldol” (Kapok tree) wood while women stitch the canvass fabric for the miniature galleons exclusively made in the island since 1948 after World War II.


It was in this post-war era that people of Rizal village in Buenavista town started crafting miniature boats for either sale or barter with foreigners  – among them, American, Greek, Chinese, and Japanase traders  – passing through the port in Guimaras Island.


The carved boats started with the simplest of designs now among the variety of miniature boats sold today. Forefathers of present craftsmen began with a model of what locals call “paraw”, a boat with two projecting sails originating in the Visayas region.

Today, the village artisans could make multi-decked model vessels of much more complicated and detailed structures from the classic cruise boats or wooden yachts with multiple sails, galleons or the cargo ships of the 16th to 18th centuries, to old wooden frigates or warships complete with details of canons and barrels.


A 60-inch galleon takes as long as a month to make but can be sold in international trade fairs for as high as P14,000.

Men and women in this village across generations know the craft by heart that their talent and skill no longer shocks them. But a close inspection of each model galleon only further drives the point that these can only be done by an expert craftsman. (END) –


To fight the gap, women must celebrate diversity

By: Buena Bernal

The literature is vast: gender inequality exists.

Anyone who denies, ignores or lives blind to this reality is helping make matters worse.

Let’s get the facts straight.

New data collated by the Alliance 8.7 and released during the United Nations General Assembly in September 2017 show women and girls account for 71% of the world’s enslaved. They are 99% of forced labor victims in the commercial sex industry and 84% of victims of forced marriages. [1]

These are the women without whose strength the world is literally empty.

More than a quarter of women worldwide have been victims of physical and/or sexual violence. [2]

These are the women who endure, who survive, and who seek peace.

“One of the most visible, tangible and pervasive manifestations of discrimination is that women across the globe are still being paid less than men for work of equal value,” explained Guy Ryder, International Labor Organization Director-General. [3]

These are the women who could have broken glass ceilings if they were not as disproportionately disadvantaged – from the division of housework and primary care for their children to other preconceived societal expectations – through gender-based devaluation. These, too, are the women who continue to shake the ground despite and sometimes driven by those very barriers.

It is because of this continuing inequality that the women’s movement must continue to thrive.

As early as childhood, girls – their young, impressionable minds – are oftentimes made to think less of themselves by social conditioning. Weaker and too high of a dream, they are told repeatedly.

The moment a girl learns to shed off these misconceptions is to be celebrated.

For Aissa Ereñeta, that moment came even before she knew what feminism was.

Aissa is one of the co-founders of the group Grrrl Gang Manila, which aims to create a safe, non-judgmental space for women based in the Philippines. [4]

“I went to an all-girls Catholic school, and a lot of the things I was told I should be or aspire to just didn’t feel quite right to me. I didn’t understand why there were different standards of behavior for and expectations of girls compared to boys. It felt inherently wrong, and I rejected these ideas,” she explains in an e-interview.

Grrrl Gang Manila came from an idea by milliner Mich Dulce, who then sought help from women within her circle for the group’s founding. Mich and Aissa were schoolmates.

Through Grrrl Gang Manila, Mich and her friends wanted to be feminists by example and wanted “to open the dialogue for feminism and Filipina women’s issues” in “a casual, non-intimidating way.”

The eight-month-old group has organized four meet-ups so far, with discussions all related to feminism.

What makes the group special is the way feminism is made enticing. The group has screened a movie for the benefit of women and girls in the now-liberated southern Philippine city of Marawi. Each beneficiary was provided a menstrual hygiene kit. Marawi was ravaged by half a year of fierce fighting between government troops and a homegrown terror group that previously seized key areas in the city.

An awareness campaign against an order by the Philippines’ top court temporarily halting supposed state subsidy for certain modern contraceptive methods was also launched, among other efforts by Grrrl Gang Manila to highlight the need for a focus on women’s reproductive health.

For the founder, Mich, there is no right or wrong way of being a feminist and of being a man or woman in general.

“I think that that’s the major problem of society – generalizations. You can put people in a box and expect them to come out with cookie cutter types. Each individual is unique,” she tells me in an e-interview.

Mich explains that not fitting in that traditional vibe of being a serious, angry feminist made her insecure for years.

“I’m not articulate or academic in my approach, and it took me being around the other women in Grrrl Gang (GG) to feel more secure about myself,” she says.

Now, she tells other girls of their insecurities: “We can either make it drive us crazy or use it as motivation to do something to make us get past it.”

“When I think about the highlights of my life, they always came about because I had something to prove, mostly to myself – that I can get myself out of a rut or I can be better,” Mich adds.

While it would take time – and Mich even acknowledges this when it comes to overcoming her own insecurities – she urges others to “acknowledge those insecurities,” “feel them out,” and “cry if you have to” but to ultimately “think of the concrete things you can do to better yourself to make you less insecure.”

Lifting each other up instead of giving in to a downward spiral of negativity is a key driver in any movement.

“It’s time to stop judgement within the feminist community,” Mich says. “We are all fighting for the same things.”

Mich says Grrrl Gang Manila is itself “composed of different types of feminists, from feminine and outspoken to political and academic, to quiet and serious, to empathetic and shy.”

“Discrimination and judgement only tears the movement apart and slows us down,” she adds.

The global gender gap has narrowed down compared to decades past, but there is still a long way to go.

To truly fight the gap, women must celebrate choice, liberation and convictions.

The activist Audre Lorde herself exhorts: “In our work and in our living, we must recognize that difference is a reason for celebration and growth, rather than a reason for destruction.”

We each as women define what empowers us. If that means being a mother, if that means pursuing a career, if that means modesty in clothing, if that means baring it all, if that means a quiet and relaxed temperament, if that means a rabble-rousing one, that is our choice and we shouldn’t be shamed for it.

We define womanhood in our own terms. That our definitions sometimes clash with society’s or with each other’s isn’t a cause for concern but celebration. We have to – because the world is already lacking in it – demonstrate tolerance and lovingkindness. Through our differences, we should instead strive to develop respect for each other’s lifestyle choices, for one another, and most of all, for ourselves by embracing even our own roughest edges.

We are each our sister’s keeper. We are each our sister’s Women’s Desk. (END)

This article first appeared on Io International.